среда, 13 июля 2011 г.

Oil

Oil origin

Oil - a flammable, oily liquid, having regard to the group of sedimentary rock, together with sand, clay and limestone, is exceptionally high calorific value: In combustion emits much more heat energy than other fuels mixtures. The origin of oil and natural gas comes from the remains of ancient plants and animals, deposited on the seabed. The main factors which determine the density of crude oil is the temperature and pressure during its formation.

In most of the sedimentary basinoil becomes lighter with increasing depth. Older rocks, deep-lying layers are characterized by high values ??of density and younger - low. The density determines the value of oil.

History of oil production is estimated from the 6th millennium BC The oldest crafts known to the banks of the Euphrates, in Kerch, in the Chinese province Sychu-an. The first method of production - is the collection of oil from water, which BC was used in Media, Babylonia and Syria.

Experts estimate that within the next 20-30 years, oil will remain the most important source of energy. In the case of the stable development of the oil market world oil consumption up to 2025 will increase by 1.8% per year. Accordingly, the total consumption will reach 115 million bpd by 2025.

Crude oil is by drilling wells, fixed with steel pipes of high pressure. For the extraction and recovery of oil and its associated gas and water on the surface of the well is sealed tube lifting systems, tools and accessories, designed to work with pressures comparable to the reservoir. Oil by drilling wells preceded primitive ways: the collection of surface water bodies, treatment of sandstone or limestone, saturated with oil through wells.

Crude oil produced from wells in Kissimmee, ancient region between Assyria and Media in the 5th century BC by the beam, which tied a leather bucket.

Historical information about petroleum

Oil known to mankind since ancient times. Excavations on the bank of the Euphrates, the existence of oil fields for the 6000-4000 years BC. Oe. At that time it was used as a fuel, oil and bitumen - in construction and road building business. Oil has been known and ancient Egypt, where it was used for embalming the dead. Plutarch and Dioscorides mention oil as a fuel to be used in ancient Greece. Nearly 2,000 years ago was known about its deposits in Surakhani near Baku. By the 16th century. by the message of "combustible water - thick," brought from Ukhta to Moscow under Boris Godunov. Despite the fact that since the 18th century., Isolated attempts to clean oil, yet it has been used almost to the 2nd half of the 19th century. mainly in kind. Oil had drawn attention only after it has been proven in practice, the Russian factory brothers Dubinin (from 1823), and in America chemist B. Silliman (1855), which can pick out a kerosene - light oil, like fotogenu, has already acquired widespread and is produced from certain types of coal and shale. Contributed to this emerged in the mid-19th century. method of oil production by drilling wells instead of wells.


Overview

Oil is formed together with gaseous hydrocarbons, usually at a depth of 1.2-2 km, lies at depths of tens of meters to 5-6 km. However, at depths of St.. 4.5-5 km is dominated by gas and gas condensate deposits with minor amounts of light fractions. The maximum number of oil fields located at depths of 1-3 km. Near the surface oil is converted into a thick Malta, a semi-solid asphalt and others - such as tar sands and bitumen.


Petroleum composition

As part of the hydrocarbon oil is isolated, and Asphaltic-resinous components of the ash. Also in the oil isolated porphyrins and sulfur. Hydrocarbons contained in oil are divided into three main groups: methane, naphthenic and aromatic. Methane (paraffin) hydrocarbons chemically more stable, and aromatic - the least stable (in which the minimum content of hydrogen). At the same aromatic hydrocarbons are the most toxic components of oil. Asphaltic-resinous oil component is partially soluble in petrol: dissolve part - it asphaltenes, non-solvent - resin. In the resin content of oxygen up to 93% of the total amount in the oil. Porphyrins - a nitrogenous organic compounds, they are destroyed at a temperature of 200-250 ° C. Sulfur is present in the oil or in a free state or in the form of hydrogen sulfide and mercaptan compounds. Sulfur is the most common corrosive contaminants that must be removed at nefteperebatyvayuschem plant. Therefore, the price of oil with high sulfur content is much lower than in the low-sulfur oil. Ash composition of the oil - is a residue obtained by burning it, which consists of different mineral compounds.

Oil Market

During the period of stable growth trend of prices in oil markets, contracts of this product have become an attractive financial instrument, and the oil market has become a fashionable target for investments.

In recent years, the world oil market, which is a key market for energy, there is a price boom. During the period from 1998 - the time a local minimum in the oil market (11.61 dollars per barrel) - until 2006, when the average annual cost of crude oil at current prices topped 63.8 dollars per barrel, the cost per barrel, depending on the crudes increased by at least 4 times. The fundamental reasons for the boom in the oil market have increased demand for hydrocarbons, on the one hand, and limited capacity in oil production (compared to disruptions in its supply) and in oil refining - on the other. When a substantial stock of spare capacity in oil production and refining influence of supply and speculative factors on the price of the oil market is much smaller than today. According to most analysts, is now formed the preconditions for the scenario in which you can expect a decrease in oil prices over the medium term.

Total traded on world markets over 10 brands recognized oil, of which the most famous are the WTI (West Texas average), quoted on the New York Stock Exchange, NYMEX (New York Merchandise Exchange), and Brent, quoted on the London Stock Exchange, IPE (International Petroleum Exchange ), which in 2005 was renamed ICE Futures. Both brands also are listed on the Singapore Exchange SIMEX. Brent oil price is determined in the oil trade on the stock exchange at current (spot) prices and futures contracts, focused on future deliveries. At the same time futures quotes Brent crude is the main interest of all transactions for oil, reflecting a lower dependence futures price on the specific terms of delivery compared to spot prices on oil Brent. Discount the current price of Brent crude oil futures contract closest to range from $ 0.4 to $ 0.6 per barrel. Futures stopped walking for a month before the date of delivery, which usually falls in the middle of the month, thus February futures will apply until mid-January.

Brent crude oil

Oil brand Brent (brent oil or brent crude oil) - low sulfur grade of oil. Properties Brent: density of about 38 ° API and a sulfur content of 0.2-1%, the density of the WTI is 40 ° API (standard American Petroleum Institute - American Petroleum Institute), sulfur content - 0.4-0.5%.

Brent oil - a world benchmark crude oil for its quality, properties and composition, which is the best in terms of processing and production of petroleum products. All the oil produced in the world (in Saudi Arabia, North Sea, U.S. Gulf of Mexico, Southeast Asia, etc.), refers to a benchmark of oil of mark Brent, who in his time has been developed countries - oil-exporting countries (OPEC) .

Produced at a given oil field is clearly different from the standard and the magnitude of this difference depends on its price. That is, the less oil than it's worth more in terms of quality, properties and composition of the benchmark Brent, the lower its price. In turn, the price of Brent crude is the only benchmark.

Brent Crude oil is in the North Sea. The name Brent is made up of the first letters of the names of layers Broom, Rannoch, Etieve, Ness and Tarbat.

Brent deposit located in the northern part of the graben the North Central Viking reef systems of the North Sea oil basin.

Brent crude oil is most suitable for the production of gasoline and medium-sized stills. Usually processed in Northwest Europe, then, if the price is suitable for export to the East Bay in the U.S. or Srednezemnomore.

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