Roman Abramovich was born on October 24, 1966 in Saratov. His father, Arkady Nahimovich (handsome, a womanizer, a joker), worked as procurers in Syktyvkar Economic Council. Arkady Nahimovich wife brought back from Saratov. Irina wondered what this family settled in the North, it is necessary, they say, to move south. She went to give birth in their homes. Already returned to the Roman. And very patient. Something there, all was not well. So soon died (Roman then turned 1.5 years). Arkady her deathsuffered greatly. Romka took to his mother's house Arcadia. Arkady Romka loved and stayed with him like an equal, man to man. Then one day, somewhere in the late 60s, started a clean-in SMU. They began to mount the crane. Boom fell and broke his legs Arcadia. A few days later he died. As explained the doctors, the case is extremely rare: the particles of bone marrow blood scored an artery. Roma for a long time did not say that he was left an orphan. Come up about some father's trip. And then it took on education his father's brother Leib Nahimovich Abramovich. Roman spent much of his youth in the Komi Republic. Leib Abramovich worked at the time head of the working supply "Pechorlesa" at "Komilesresurse."
All my childhood and adolescence future oil tycoon living in Ukhta in the five-story brick. Feedback from neighbors, the novel was always stressed polite, sociable and considerate enough was known as a child. In 1983, Abramovich has finished public school number 2 with good grades and enrolled in the Industrial Institute. Before finalizing two courses, he was drafted into the Soviet Army. Served as a private avtovzvoda Artillery Regiment. Returning from the army, Abramovich entered the second year of the Moscow Institute of Oil and Gas. Gubkin and lived with his second uncle - Abram Nahimovicha Abramovich.
In the Moscow institute, he had grown not only knowledge but also relationships - the children of many oil and gas, "the generals" (eg, the sons of Vyakhirev, Chernomyrdin, the children of directors of oil refineries) were in Gubkinsky. A son of the first director of association "Noyabrskneftegaz" Andrew Gorodilov Roman Abramovich lived in a dormitory.
Parallel to his studies at the Institute of Roman Abramovich has organized a cooperative under the name "Comfort". Engaged in manufacturing of toys, a cooperative of polymers. Roma worked in co-op with Shvidler and Valery Oyfom, which would later become indispensable assistants and business partners in the business. Upon completion of the cooperative activities Abramovich for a while worked as a broker on the exchange.
October 18, 1991 Abramovich married Irina Malandina Muscovite, charming fragile girl (with her he had met on the plane, at the time she was a flight attendant), and stayed in the capital.
At first, business and groin Abramovich oil. Like many people, Roman Abramovich began in 1992 with the usual trade (by the way, the oil for a long time did not belong to Abramovich seriously, making fun of the fact that he sold jeans and tights). Abramovich has created five companies that are just not doing what (at least, according to the documents) - Publishing and brokering, car repairs and even production of fur and skins.
The scheme of one of the first fraud
July 9, 1992 the Investigative Department of Internal Affairs of Moscow has opened a criminal case of theft of diesel fuel from the Ukhta Refinery (Komi) on a large scale. Abramovich was then the head of a small business, "AVC", which bought a fuel with false documents. The investigation revealed that Abramovich has entered into a criminal conspiracy with unknown persons in Ukhta Komi Republic and the Kaliningrad region to commit theft of state assets in large-scale (diesel fuel from the Ukhta refinery). A resident of Ukhta Novozhilov February 14, 1992, using false documents to the firm "Aveks-Komi", signed by the Director Rogachev, had conspired with the deputy head of the department of supply Ukhta refinery Nikitenko. As a result of collusion appeared fake contract to supply refineries 5 thousand tons of diesel oil firm "Aveks-Komi" delivery to the station "Moscow" Moscow Railway.
Roman Abramovich, in turn, agreed in advance with the station "Moscow" Boris Avetikov acceptance of tanks with diesel fuel. Using a fake power of attorney and other forged documents, received and appropriated Abramovich arrived from Ukhta 55 tanks with diesel fuel, worth 3.8 million rubles. Then, with the consent management MOR, and also using the fake documents, under the guise of sending fuel to military units deployed in the Kaliningrad region, ferried him to Riga, where it has been realized through the shell structure. Gain on sale of Abramovich shared with other members of the criminal group.
Soon it was translated in Ukhta for further investigation, where sunk into oblivion. Thank you once again my uncle. But the name of Boris Avetikov to remember. It will take three years and a modest head of the railway station "Moscow" will take a direct part in the grand attraction called "Sibneft". Mr. Avetikov head of JSC "Multitrans" - one of more than a dozen companies that Berezovsky and Abramovich will register to participate in the pledge auction for "Sibneft". All of these firms competed with each other, and, of course, some of them even won the auction. These same opponents on him were simply not allowed.
In 1993, Roman Abramovich, continued commercial activity, in particular on oil sales from the city of Noyabrsk. Abramovich firm AR "Mekong" is second only to "Balkar Trading" in terms of the sale of oil from this city. This Abramovich was obliged to get acquainted with Andrew Gorodilov, son of the head "Noyabrskneftegaz" and the first President of "Sibneft".
Privatization of "Sibneft", masterfully played out Abramovich and Berezovsky, who is worthy to enter the manual titled "How to Be a Millionaire." It is not known at whose head was born on this brilliant plan. However, the circumstances of the meeting of two titans of thought and Russian democracy - Berezovsky and Abramovich - also shrouded in mystery. According to some reports, Roman Abramovich, Boris Berezovsky met with in the Caribbean. There they were at the invitation of the heads of Alfa-Bank Petr Aven and Mikhail Fridman. Berezovsky called AVEN (they were familiar with the work of "LogoVAZ"), and Abramovich - Friedman. However, both "intellectual giant" set to work simultaneously at both ends.
The oil industry was by then already divided - with the exception of the Omsk oil refinery and "Noyabrskneftegaz". They say that Abramovich and Berezovsky's attention to these two companies, the allocation of that "Rosneft" and began to try to Boris Berezovsky.
While Berezovsky knocked at doors Kremlin offices, Abramovich arranged on the ground. Roma, along with his classmate and partner, Andrew Bloch began spud son Omsk governor Leonid Polezhayev. By the time Alex, graduated from the Leningrad Institute of Aviation, settled in Moscow. But a warm place in the sun and generally have not found life was not very happy. Then on his way he met Roman Abramovich, who as a real adversary could offer strained circumstances provincial all of which missed his body and soul.
Help a loving dad needed, while Chernomyrdin - then, by the way, another prime minister - has vetoed the selection and subsequent privatization of the Omsk oil refinery. But we have to every person of Caucasian nationality of the policeman there, and for each prime minister - Berezovsky. He arranged an audience with Yeltsin Polezhayev, the governor and clearly explained to the guarantor, that if not provide the Omsk oil refinery of "Rosneft", Omsk lose the largest taxpayer. In general, the desired order was signed.
The same Leonid Polezhayev - by the time his son had become one of the wedding generals "Sibneft" (does Abramovich promises train) - helped to re-register "Sibneft" from Siberia to the regional center Lubin. House on 85 October Street (the address of JSC "Siberian Oil Company") - ramshackle hovels with granary castle that can cause a compassionate desire to submit to two passers-by, "the deputies of the Duma."
Oil production was more profitable than its processing, and Abramovich will soon focused his interests on the "Noyabrskneftegaz". On the first director of the association's son Andrew Gorodilov Abramovich was familiar with the student days, and the way to the heart was already beaten provincial - he went through the purse, women's and restaurants.
In June 1996, Abramovich joined the board of directors "Noyabrsknetfegaza", becoming also the head of the Moscow office, and since 1997 - member of the Board of Directors of "Sibneft".
On equal footing with Boris Berezovsky, Roman Abramovich was created offshore company Runicom Ltd, registered in Gibraltar, and five of its "daughters" in Western Europe. This structure is involved in the calculations for the export enterprises of "Sibneft".
Set out to take over the company "Sibneft", Abramovich and his associates used a tried and tested method of "mortgaging the auction." It should be noted that the law "On privatization of state and municipal enterprises in the Russian Federation" does not provide for such method of privatization, as the alienation of state property taken as collateral.
Three tender for sale of shares of "Sibneft" have been held in violation of applicable laws. Members of the competitive komssii representing the interests of the state, clearly acted in favor of the competition - companies controlled by Mr Abramovich, Berezovsky and Smolensky.
The most interesting fact is that Boris Berezovsky, who stirred this whole mess in the beginning there was an equal partner Roman Abramovich, will soon part with their assets in "Sibneft". Tell us how one day Abramovich, a man unlike Berezovsky carried away, it is pragmatic and knows only one logic - the logic of money and refused to give money for the ORT and "Kommersant". But it agreed to buy shares of "Sibneft" Berezovsky. And what could I do to Boris Abramovich, accustomed to big spending and playing politics?
In the end, until the autumn of 2005, Roman Abramovich, has managed to accumulate in the hands of 72.66% stake in oil company "Sibneft".
In February 2000 the company sold the TWG "Sibneft" and Logovaz controlling stakes in three of the largest aluminum smelters - Krasnoyarsk, Novokuznetsk and Brotherhood, as well as considerable stake Krasnoyarsk hydroelectric power station and Achinsk alumina refinery for $ 500 million thus Abramovich and Berezovsky took control of the full technological cycle of production of aluminum, at least, formally owned by the Russian firm.
But in practice, the transaction of this magnitude can not be implemented without the consent of the State, or more precisely - those representing the State. Which forced the brothers Black (representing the interests of TWG), recently won "the battle for KrAZ" a local "authority" Bykov, renounce the fruits of their victory, and even for the ridiculously low price? Is turmoil in his personal life, which are excitedly told tabloid edition? Or much more severe circumstances?
"PCB" Black business can serve as a classic example of "systems" Berezovsky and Abramovich, his former partner. First, they agreed to support candidates in the gubernatorial election of Cygnus, with the same Bykov, displaces Black with KrAZ. After winning the Governor-General Lebed to the filing of the same operators and the full support of the Kremlin structures that are "central bankers'" family "had a major influence, he began to" sink "Bykov and won a criminal case against him, then hit the last running. TWG has received the coveted control of KrAZ, agreeing with Berezovsky about his support of a number of political projects.
And then gradually began a campaign against tolling schemes used by TWG for care out of taxes and receive super-profits. Parallel has changed the attitude of local authorities, Krasnoyarsk, Kemerovo and Irkutsk, in the firm of Black. Apparently, in these conditions of continuous pressure "Tashkent brothers" felt themselves to lesser evil and get compensation out of the game, and Berezovsky & Co. have control over one of the most financially lucrative domestic industries.
Before the coming of Roman Abramovich, the balance of power in the company was as follows: 40% of the shares through Russian intermediaries Cherny brothers owned British corporation TWG, 30% - Moscow group "Trastkonsaltgrup", 10% - Krasnoyarsk businessman and head of the board of directors KrAZ Anatoly Bykov, in alliance with Gennady Druzhinin 10% - of "Kipton Limited", and another 10% - the remaining minority shareholders.
Later, everything changed. Roman Abramovich has bought a package of Black and Vasily Anisimov ("Trastkonsaltgrup"). According to some reports, the latter sold the bags, thinking that they can not afford to deal with the problems of the Krasnoyarsk Aluminum - Alexander Lebed, the conflict with Anatoly Bykov, the duty trehmilliardnym plant energy and the fact that the dominant position at the Achinsk Alumina Plant, the main supplier of cheap raw materials for production aluminum, is a group of "Alpha". All the more so even then, the interests of "Trastkonsaltgrup" were directed to merge with the Siberian-Urals Aluminum Company of Victor Vekselberg. If "Trastkonsalt" did not sell his shares, then he would have stayed KrAZ one on one with "Russian Aluminum". It is unlikely that between them could be reached on the joint conduct of business - they are too different to a set task. "Trastkonsaltu" obviously needed a cooperative effort, and addressing the supply of alumina, "Russian Aluminum" - full control over exports. Do not sell "Trastkonsalt" the package caused a conflict of interest would be resolved during the next round of devastating conflict for the industry. Had to give up the one for whom the ownership of shares in KrAZ is the task of lower priority. And "Trastkonsalt" took this decision, not only economically justifiable, but also visionary. For the same reason and the owners of the Bratsk aluminum plant have decided to part with their assets.
But for the honor of Roman Abramovich, has never held an aluminum business, he was able to "razrulit" difficult situation, agreeing with all amicably. Calculation of Vygotsky Black TWG in asset sales was simple. Oilers did not understand in aluminum. Business this in contrast to the oil industry at every stage of the problem and requires specific knowledge and skills. Therefore, having received from them a lot of money, through their "privatized" by managers, you can still "deribanit" factories and wage war with Deripaska have the money "Sibneft".
But Roman Abramovich has proved to be smarter than that expected for the Black Lion. "Strong move" was calculated at once, and almost by the first action of the new owners of the former empire was TWG proposal Deripaska Union. Deripaska has gone union. The war on "Sibneft" could be a long time, but in the end, Abramovich will only be more, and monetary and administrative resources. In the long war Deripaska lost more than from the merger.
Already in April 2000 at KrAZ appeared administration of the "Siberian Aluminum", and soon it was announced that "Sibneft" and "Siberian Aluminum" merge their aluminum assets into one company - "Russian aluminum", which will bring together up to 70% of the aluminum industry. Terms of the agreement: the property 50 to 50, CEO - Deripaska. Administration at the plants - people Deripaska. Staff management company 50 to 50. Missing up to 50% of the assets of the shareholders, "Sibal" covers cash. They say that this amount was about $ 500 million
Thus, acquiring assets TWG for $ 500 million and subsequently rescued by the same $ 500 million at the confluence with Sibal, Roman Abramovich, had acquired almost half of the free all aluminum industry.
Cars and planes
In August 2000 the company was established "RusPromAvto", designed to consolidate and expand the assets of Abramovich and Deripaska in the automotive industry. Its expansion in the automotive industry, "Russian Aluminum" began with the acquisition of the largest, though not very successful in Russia plant to produce buses - JSC "Pavlovsky Bus" (PAZ). Interest of "Rusal" to explain just automotive - parts of the machines are made of aluminum. It is important to note that the distribution of shares of the new holding company under the control of "Rusal", Company "Basic Element" (Deripaska) and Millhouse Capital (Abramovich) were 37.5%, and 25% were transferred to the managers.
In 2001 Abramovich bought the structure about 26% of the company "Aeroflot". According to press reports, in total for the purchase of this package have been spent about $ 120 million shares were bought on the open market as well as from private shareholders, such as the firms that are close to the businessman Boris Berezovsky