Offer (german Aktie, from Lat. Actio - an action the claim) - issued security, fixing the rights of the owner (shareholder) to a portion of company profits as dividends, to participate in the management company and part of the property remaining after eliminate it. Promotion is a registered security.
Categories of shares
Distinguish common and preferred shares.
1. Ordinary shares are entitled to participate in the management of the company (1 share equals one vote at the meeting of shareholders,except for cumulative voting) and participate in the distribution of profits of the company. The source of payment of dividends on ordinary shares is the net profit. The dividend is declared and the company board of directors recommended to the general meeting of shareholders, which may only reduce the size of the dividend recommended by the Board of Directors with respect.
2. Preference shares may make limits on participation in management, and may give additional rights to manage (not necessarily), but the yield constant (often - fixed as a percentage of net income or an accounting in absolute monetary terms) dividends. As a rule, in Russia there are significant limitations on the participation in the management of companies, that is because the mass privatization of enterprises according to the type 2 and 3 provide for the transfer of shares of Preferred labor collectives, while denying him the right to vote at shareholder meetings.
Dividends on preferred shares may be paid out of profits as well as from other sources - in accordance with the Charter.
Admission to trading
For admission to trading of the shares on the exchange must go through the listing or be admitted to trading without listing.
Participation shares in the auction allows the issuer to attract the cheapest and longest capital, increase the value of the company to reduce borrowing costs, to raise their prestige, to carry out additional advertising through exchange channels and successfully placed subsequent editions.